For the Trinity assessed lesson, my class did job interviews. I can warmly recommend the topic to other teachers who have to do a Trinity diploma or DELTA assessed lesson, especially if your class is as motivated as ours was, and job interviews are in fact on their agenda. It obviously helps to choose a topic your students really do want to talk about. The main content should be authentic and matter to your learners, yet be packaged playfully, so noone gets bogged down in their own immediate agenda. Thank you, dear class, for being so wonderful and lovely!!
This was the third lesson in a series on job applications. The group started by thinking about the exact definition of 12 given words that you can use to describe your strengths (and weaknesses). Since some of them are similar in Spanish, and others are very different and can easily be confused, the class spent quite some time exploring their meanings, and applying them to themselves.
- supportive… means I am helpful when there are problems. — de apoyo!
- friendly… means I am nice and helpful. — amistoso!
- focused… means I am very clear about what I am doing. — centrado!
- flexible… means I can make changes as needed. — flexible
- creative… means I have many ideas. — creativo
- organized… means I plan very carefully. — organizado
- responsible… means I do the right thing. — responsable
- careful… means I think about what I am doing so I don’t do anything wrong. — cuidadoso
- technical… means I understand technology. — tecnico
- experienced… means that I have done something a lot. — exprimentado!
- reliable… means that I will do what you expect. — fiable!
- successful… means things are going very well for me. — exitoso!
One of the most important things I learned in the assessed teaching practice, through somewhat painful trial and error and very helpful feedback from Mark McKinnon, was to break down new content into individual stages. So, for example, I didn’t have the learners focus on the spoken words until they had worked out the meaning in groups. I didn’t ask them to tell or read me the answers, because that would have meant having them say the words, and I would have either let their pronunciation errors pass, or would have had to correct them, distracting everyone from the area we were focussing on. Only after everyone had the correct words and definitions lined up did we begin to work on pronunciation.
I only took this approach after having done a simlar exercise differently in a disasterous earlier lesson, where I’d had them do a gap fill and then read off answers, which lead to discussions about meaning and pronunciation drills all mixed up with questions about where we were on the page, creating a huge mess of an activity which completely tore apart a lesson which on paper had looked balanced and promising. So: these details are important!
This was fascinating to me. I learn very differently than many of my students. I tend to set up tasks based on my natural inclination to synthesize information very quickly rather than processing it analytically, and prefer short general explanations that don’t break things down over the more extensive and particular explanations that many learners prefer, but which I find positively irritating when I am subjected to them. So following my own preferences over the years means I haven’t been giving learners with a less global/ more particular and less synthesizing/more analytical approach quite the information they needed to do their tasks well. Realizing this blind spot in my knowledge of learning preferences and exploring similar issues goes far beyond just being sure to cater to visual or kinesthetic learners. This broader approach to self-reflection on language learning styles was introduced to me by Patricia Franco using Rebecca Oxford’s Strategy Inventory for Language Learning, and it has made me turn my teaching inside out. The Strategy Inventory makes a lot of sense to me as a reflective tool and I hope to incorporate it consciously into my new courses. I’ve found a very extensive learner questionnaire by Oxford, Cohen and Chi that can be used as is to jump-start a deiscussion with learners, and help profile their preferences from the very beginning of a course: Learning Style Survey.
In a second step we did a very short review of question forms. I had anticipated that this would not work well, as this was a mixed level class with a variety of different approaches to studying grammar, so I declared this a sub-aim to the communicative aim, and wrote that I wasn’t aiming for accuracy, but for fluency. The question sorting part went well, but question formulation was something that only the more advanced learners could do on their own, and in fact a number of them did do it while the others were still working on the sorting activity. So when time ran out, I decided to drop the formulation activity and go straight to the role play. If I had to do it again, I’d declare the formulation part to be a flexible addition for the advanced learners to do on their own, and leave it at that.
The stronger learners supported the weaker ones throughout this course, which Patricia and I encouraged and relied on. The communicative activity that got the participants to speak English extensively and try out the new words and use the questions was the interview itself. I had prepared a cheat sheet with questions for them to pick and choose from, and they did really well, and interviewed away. This setup for role play is something I learned from Heather Lyle. As for the seating arrangements, I had the learners move their chairs and sit in two formal rows facing each other, so they actually had to move physically into the role, which I think makes all the difference in getting into the mindset. After round one they switched partners and played the other role, balancing out the communicative heart of the lesson.
I had prepared a presentation anticipating a few areas I thought they’d have problems with, some of which did come up, so I could project those selected slides onto the board and we could work around the gaps and spaces to add emergent language. This is low tech, just a Powerpoint and a normal whiteboard. An IWB would be a cooler solution. In any case the projected images were a better solution than writing up all of the language that came up on the board, especially with these very visual learners. 60 minutes are such a short timespan to work with, and just understanding them when they were speaking and noting down emergent language was a challenge, let alone analyzing it and getting it onto the board in a comprehensible and didactically valuable way. It was more feasible to select and preempt areas they’d had trouble with just the lesson before, things I just knew would come up. Predicting errors and language problems in teaching learners whose L1 I don’t speak was really the hardest part of the entire course for me. German learners I can teach on the spot, but not Catalan and Spanish speakers. GIven how lovely I found the country, I’ve decided that learning Spanish is definitely on my agenda!
The phonology bit, focussing on word stress, went fine. They had learned the notation using capital letters with Patricia the day before, and they had given us feedback that they actually really liked any and all drilling we did. In hindsight, I should have added some work on /aɪ/ to the mix for “reliable” /rɪˈlaɪəb(ə)l/, which Spanish speakers have a great deal of trouble with.
Just to clarify: This is certainly not the way I have normally taught. I’d have poopooed this degree of scaffolding as “spoonfeeding”. Patricia and I had very interesting conversations about other kinds of lessons and learner training with analytical and deep end components that may be more effective in paving the way for greater learner autonomy over the duration of a course and in the long run. Still, I see staging in increments, followed by the communicative heart, as a very valuable teaching model because it redirects my attention towards what the learners can process on their own in a single lesson. That’s in fact very much a part of what I wanted to learn in this course. So I’ll be experimenting with it in “real life”.
Handout: Job interviews
Job interview roleplay
Presentation job interviews
Teaching practice documentation is required for each assessed lesson.
First time to your blog and must say I’m impressed !
During my 3 years at a uni in China, those job interview lessons were always the most successful of the semester. Super engaged students. I went through resumés and describing strengths/weaknesses like you’ve mentioned here and then had an entire class of “Job fair” role-playing. Talk about a buzzing classroom !
Interesting point as well that you notice how your personal learning habits impact how you teach. We’re all susceptible to these kinds of “oversights” and I think the idea of “learning surveys” at the beginning of a semester is brilliant. Would take time and experience to effectively cater to different students/needs/lesson planning, but I think it is a very conscious and worthwhile effort.
3 years in China sounds like a life-changing experience. Wow! Did you have some basic Chinese before you went? And did you complete your studies there, or jump right into teaching?
Thanks very much for your kind words! This past month was really exciting for me. The learning survey does take time, as you say. Just summarizing their results as short blurbs turned into a very long evening for me, and my dear teaching partner who basically developed it into a paper spent many hours on it, but that really helped clarify what both the group and the individuals needed.
I often find it hard to notice or remember what individual learners are getting out of the lessons, and tend to focus on a few selected ones, especially in a big new class. So having this survey and writeup provided a grid to check back with periodically to see what was going on. Seeing learners with certain preferences selecting each other as preferred learning partners can be quite educational and actually build the experience you mention from the ground up. It’s the first approach to reflective practice that I find practical.
Thanks again for coming by 🙂
Thanks for the carefully thought-out reply. Again, I’m impressed with the individual attention you offer your students. I did the same but not as logically so, and really only in the classes with less than 15 students, because otherwise it just becomes too much to “qualify”.
The three years in China were life-changing indeed. First of all, I met my wife there 😉 Second, I learned Chinese. Amazing language. I’ve blogged about it a bit, hoping to provide a bit of an insider’s view to outsiders (though language enthusiasts). Today I blogged the etymology of “happy bday” in chinese. I could barely say “hello” when I arrived, though left with a good level, and continue to use it on a daily basis for various projects as an intercultural consultant.
Glad to be now following your blog. Best with of luck with the fall term. Cheers, b
Goodness me, that struck a chord regarding learning styles! I too hate step-by-step learning when I am subjected to it, but most of my learners want and need it. Breaking things down for them has both made me a better teacher and given me a better understanding of my subject. Still, it’s good to hear that someone else feels strange about it. I worry constantly that I am patronising my learners by breaking things down so much, but they usually seem to appreciate it – at least en masse.
Anyway, I have thoroughly enjoyed reading these Trinity posts – very thought-provoking.
Yes, patronizing our students is definitely a danger, isn’t it? There’s a lot of range for challenging them to develop areas they neglect, so maybe the key is to figure out ways to provide both at once – so: scaffolding in tidy steps if they need it, but enough time on “hands-free” activities not to test the patience of… um… people like us!
Oh, and as I wrote, this can’t happen in every lesson. I do think that we need to do dogme conversation-style teaching, deep-end them into complex tasks and give them stuff to explore with a more discovery-style analytical approach as well… just not in lesson where we expect the whole class including the more particular/analytical learners to actually go and incorporate the new language in an on-the-spot communicative activity!
Thanks for your comment, and I hope we “meet” again.